The 41st issue of the magazine 'Advocacy' opens with an "Editorial", the topic of which is: "Involvement of lawyers in the public consultation of cases, still remains a challenge." Here the emphasis is on the need for this consultation of public bodies with lawyers, not only because their community in the country represents the largest number of members, compared to other categories of legal professionals, but also because the legal capacities of this community are exercised continuously. However, public, central, and local bodies do not consider having the necessary consultation for the relevant drafts, so lawyers and their local chambers themselves can be more active in contributing through their involvement in decision-making processes.

The "Document " section in this issue carries an opinion of the "CCBE on the proposal for a Regulation, which sets harmonized norms for Artificial Intelligence", After the European Commission presented on 21 April 2021 the proposal for a Regulation, which would amend some legislative acts of the EU, through this Document adopted on 8 October 2021 CCBE wishes to further develop its position on some specific findings.

The "Constitutional Law" section carries an article entitled "The expanding constitutional jurisdiction and the role of the constitutional judge: The Albanian context". In this paper, the author, Av. Dr. Sokol Berberi, former judge of the Constitutional Court during 2007 - 2016, after initially explaining the term expansion of constitutional jurisdiction, dwells on the elaboration of some issues and their sub-issues, such as: the living constitution and constitutional jurisdiction; extension of constitutional control; jurisprudential developments and interpretation methods; interpretation of the Constitution and restrictions imposed on judges. This paper reflects an attempt by the author to contribute to maintaining and strengthening the legitimacy and authority of the Constitutional Court.

The "Opinion" section, on the other hand, carries an opinion of Niazi Jaho, Specialist in the field of law, Tirana: "On the validity of 2019 local elections", which were boycotted by the opposition parties. After the announcement of the final results, the Association of Albanian Municipalities filed a request with the Constitutional Court, claiming the unconstitutionality of these elections. The author of the Opinion on this topic answers here some questions like: Did the Constitutional Court have jurisdiction or competence to review that request in plenary session? Could the complainant (Association of Albanian Municipalities) have a legal standing in this way? Why and how did the Venice Commission express itself in its Opinions of 14 October 2019 and 14-16 October 2021? What reasons did the Constitutional Court use in explaining its Decision no. 36, dated 04.11.2021?

    The "Harmonization" section of this issue focuses on "The legal regulation of the registration and operation of non-profit organizations in the Republic of Albania", where the Justice Reform and the EU Integration process make the public institutions pay attention to these organizations. The author of this paper, Av. Patricia Pogaçe, Director of the Directorate of Free Legal Aid at the Ministry of Justice, Tirana, introduces us here specifically to the legal framework for their registration, and the fiscal legal framework for the operation of NGOs in Albania, as well as the legal framework for the interaction of these organizations with public institutions in decision-making.

The "Administrative" section explains the "Subject matter competence for adjudication of employment disputes, which have a special regulation". The authors of the paper on this topic, Olti Skrame, Judge in the Judicial District Court of Kurbin, together with Albana Misja, Assistant Judge in the Judicial District Court of Tirana, emphasize, among others, the criteria that determine the subject competence, which is the law according to which employment relationships are regulated. They also explain that the phrase special legal regulation includes three situations, including cases that correspond to these situations.

The "Criminal Law" section carries a paper on "Reflections on the objective aspect of pre-bankruptcy criminal offenses in the Republic of Albania", drafted by Av.  Prof.Assoc. Dr. Ersi Bozheku, Lecturer in Criminal Law at the PhD School at La Sapienza University in Rome (Italy). In this paper the author has tried to bring a solid interpretation in the context of pre-bankruptcy offenses, the result of a nearly 15 years of study in Italy, not only in the Italian system but also beyond (Albania, Kosovo, Northern Macedonia, and Brazil). The opinions presented herein may be useful to lawyers and other justice operators in handling cases in this area.

Also, this section includes also a paper entitled "Plea agreement trial in Albania, viewed in comparison with other countries" where its author, Av. Migena Ramçi, Specialist in the Directorate of Programming, Standardization and Regulatory Framework at the Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth, Tirana, initially analyzes the institute of plea bargain in general, describing the characteristics of this institute in the civil law system and common law, as well as the differences between them. Then, an analysis of the plea bargain trial institute is done referring to the Albanian Code of Criminal Procedure, comparing it with the USA, Germany, Italy, and Kosovo.

The "Family Law" section is dedicated to "Plea agreements between the parties" where its author, Av. Sabina Meta, Member of Tirana Bar Association, after explaining the procedure of divorce through mediation, dwells on the problems and inequality in how similar cases are treated differently by the court in this regard, concluding with some suggestions on unifying divorce through agreement between the parties.

The "Civil" section of this issue of the magazine focuses on "Heritage from the perspective of protecting family and property", by Av. Krenar B. Troci, Member of Durrës Notary Chamber. Above all that is presented in this paper, emphasis is placed on the need for substantial and emergency interventions in some provisions of the Civil Code, the Family Code, and the Labor Code that regulate the institution of inheritance, in order to improve them in order to guarantee the autonomy of the will of the individual, the civil circulation of goods, the guarantee of fundamental rights, such as the right to enjoy property, the protection and promotion of the family, etc.

The section "Commercial Law" carries a paper on: "Control of concentrations to protect competition" by Joanna M. Pepa, from the Law Firm 'Frost & Fire Consulting' and Lecturer at the Faculty of Law of the University of Tirana, after explaining the meaning of the term concentration in the Albanian competition law, analyzes the provisions of law no. 9121, dated 28.07.2003 in jurisdictional, substantive and procedural terms. Finally, considerations are given to the importance of the role of lawyers in protecting fair competition.

In the section "Horizons" we look at the "Applicable Law of Contractual Obligations in Private International Law". Through this paper, the author, Arlinda Dedi, Specialist in the Directorate of Agriculture and Rural Development, Tirana acquaints the reader with the provisions of the so-called Rome Convention and Regulation no. 53/2008, which is directly applicable by all Member States of the European Union. However, as the author concludes, the applicable law on contractual obligations remains one of the most controversial issues in European private international law.

The editorial office decided to provide another “Glossary” under the “Etymology” section, which explains the meaning and origin of some specific terms, which are a result of a multi-annual research by Av. Vladimir Molla.

            This issue includes also a “Humor & Satire” section, containing the permanent title “Eulogy of Calamandrei”, which brings some anecdotes and personal experience of this distinguished Italian lawyer (1889-1956). This piece, which often reflect the often fragile relationships between the parties in a civil case – lawyers and judges – are translated into a proper and smooth Albanian language for our readers by Dr. Henrik Ligori.

Finally, the “Announcements” section invites advocates, advocate-assistants, and other legal professionals to send their articles, explaining the criteria they have to meet.